A TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE FAMILY
ORCHIDACEAE

Note:
This Table is taxonomic breakdown of the Orchid (Orchidaceae) Family and is based on a
system presented in The Orchids: Natural History and Classification by R. L. Dressler (1981).

SUBFAMILY TRIBE SUBTRIBE ALLIANCE GENERA
(a sample listing)
SPIRANTHOIDEAE

There are about 550 species in about 95 genera in this subfamily.
Members of this subfamily can be identified by the basic column structure and the lack of root-stem tuberoids.
ERYTHRODEAE

All species in this tribe are found primarily in Asia, Africa, and Australia.
TROPIDIINAE N/A Corymborkis
Tropidia
GOODYERINAE GOODYERA Goodyera
Ludisia
ANOECTO-
CHILUS
Anoectochilus
Zeuxine
CRANICHIDEAE

Species of this tribe can be found primarily in North and South America.
SPIRANTHINAE N/A Spiranthes
PACHYPLECTRONINAE N/A Pachyplectron
MANNIELLINAE N/A Manniella
CRANICHIDINAE PRESCOTTIA Altensteinia
Prescottia
PONTHIEVA Baskervilla
Cranichis
Ponthieva
CRYPTOSTYLIDINAE N/A Cryptostylis
ORCHIDOIDEAE

There are about 2,800 species in this subfamily. Members of this subfamily are usually terrestrial plants found in the temperate regions of Europe, Africa, and Australia. They can be identified by a unique thickened root-stem tuberoid storage organ. The plants usually have slender stems, leaves in a spiral arrangement, and soft, mealy pollen.

NEOTTIEAE

There are about 100 species in this tribe.
NOTE: Dressler moved this tribe to the Epidendrum subfamily in 1990.
LIMODORINAE N/A Epipactis
LISTERINAE N/A Listera
DIURIDEAE

There are about 550 species in this tribe.
CHLORAEINAE N/A Bipinnula
Chloraea
CALADENIINAE CALADENIA Caladenia
CALEANAE Drakaea
PTEROSTYLIDINAE N/A Pterostylis
ACIANTHINAE N/A Corybas
DIURIDINAE N/A Thelymitra
PRASOPHYLLINAE N/A Microtis
Prasophyllum
ORCHIDEAE

Largest of the tribes in this subfamily, there are over 1,700 species associated with it.
ORCHIDINAE GALERIS Amerorchis
Galearis
PLATANTHERA Platanthera
ORCHIS Ophrys
Orchis
HOLOTHRIX Bartholina
Holothrix
HABENARIINAE HERMINIUM Gennaria
Herminium
HABENARIA Habenaria
HUTTONAEINAE N/A Huttonaea
DISEAE DISINAE N/A Disa
SATYRIINAE N/A Satyrium
CORYCIINAE N/A Ceratandra
Corycium
These two Tribes are not currently assigned to a specific Subfamily TRIPHOREAE

A primitive tribe consisting of three genera and twenty species. Possibly belongs to the Epidendrum subfamily.
N/A N/A Monophyllorchis
Triphora
WULLSCHLAEGELIEAE

This tribe has only one genus with two species.
N/A N/A Wullschlaegelia
EPIDENDROIDEAE

The largest subfamily consisting of over 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera. Species of this subfamily can be identified by the unique development of the anther. Most (but not all) have hard pollinia. Epiphytes in this subfamily usually have pseudobulbs. The terrestrials have thin stems and even saprophytes. In general, species of this subfamily are tropical plants.
VANILLEAE

This tribe has over 200 species.
VANILLINAE N/A Vanilla
LECANORCHIDINAE N/A Lecanorchis
PALMORCHIDINAE N/A Diceratostele
POGONIINAE N/A Pogonia
GASTRODIEAE NERVILLIINAE N/A Nervilia
GASTRODIINAE N/A Didymoplexis
Gastrodia
RHIZANTHELLINAE N/A Cryptanthemis
Rhizanthella
EPIPOGIEAE N/A N/A Epipogium
Stereosandra
ARETHUSEAE

There are over 500 species in this tribe.
ARETHUSINAE N/A Arethusa
THUNIINAE N/A Thunia
BLETIINAE ARUNDINA Arundina
CALOPOGON Calopogon
CALANTHE Bletia
Calanthe
Phaius
PLOCO-
GLOTTIS
Plocoglottis
TAINIA Tainia
COELIA Coelia
CHYSIS Chysis
SOBRALIINAE N/A Sobralia
COELOGTNEAE

There are over 400 species in this tribe.
COELOGYNINAE N/A Coelogyne
Dendrochilum
Pleione
ADRORHIZINAE N/A Adrorhizon
MALAXIDEAE

There are over 900 species in this tribe.
N/A N/A Liparis
Malaxis
CRYPTARRHENEAE N/A N/A Cryptarrhena
CALYPSOEAE N/A N/A Calypso
EPIDENDREAE

Largest tribe of this subfamily, consisting of over 8,000 species. Members of this tribe can be found around the world.
ERIINAE ERIA Eria
CERATO-
STYLIS
Ceratostylis
Epiblastus
Sarcostoma
PODOCHILINAE N/A Chilopogon
Podochilus
THELASIINAE N/A Rhynchophreatia
GLOMERINAE N/A Earina
Glomera
LAELIINAE

There are over 800 species in 40 to 60 genera in this subtribe. Although not the largest subtribe in this subfamily, over 25% (136) of all hybrid genera (including Cattleya) are associated with it. The plants are generally tropical American epiphytes.
ISOCHILUS Hexisea
Isochilus
CATTLEYA Brassavola
Broughtonia
Cattleya
Encyclia
Laelia
Rhyncholaelia
Schomburgkia
Sophronitis
BARKERIA Barkeria
Caularthron
EPIDENDRUM Epidendrum
LEPTOTES Leptotes
NEOCO-
GNIAUXIA
Neocogniauxia
HYBRIDS Brassocattleya
Brassoepidendrum
Brassolaeliocattleya
Cattleytonia
Epicattleya
Epilaeliocattleya
Hawkinsara
Laeliocatonia
Laeliocattleya
Otaara
Potinara
Schombocattleya
Sophrocattleya
Sophrolaelia
Sophrolaeliocattleya
MEIRACYLLINAE N/A Meiracyllium
PLEUROTHALLIDINAE N/A Dracula
Lepanthes
Masdevallia
Platystele
Pleurothallis
Restrepia
Stelis
DENDROBIINAE N/A Dendrobium
BULBOPHYLLINAE N/A Bulbophyllum
SUNIPIINAE N/A Sunipia
VANDOIDEAE

This is the second largest subfamily consisting of over 5,000 species in over 300 genera. Members of this subfamily can be identified by their monopodial growth though many of the species produce pseudobulbs. Pseudobulbs produced are normally shorter and stouter than those in the Epidendrum subfamily. The most prominent feature of species in the Vanda subfamily is the unique development of the anther. Species of this subfamily are found in most tropical areas of the world and consist mostly of epiphytes, but there are also some terrestrials and saprophytes included.
POLYSTACHYEAE

There are about 200 species in this tribe. Species can be identified by the four pollinia and the lip often has mealy hairs called pseudopollen on the upper surface.
N/A N/A Polystachya
VANDEAE

There are over 1,700 species in over 130 genera in this tribe. Members can be found in tropical Asia, nearby Pacific islands, Australia, and Africa.
SARCANTHINAE

There are over 1,000 species in over 100 genera in this subtribe and are found mostly in Asia with a few in Africa. This subtribe also includes about 208 (38%) hybrid genera.
PHALAENOPSIS Aerides
Chiloschista
Doritis
Phalaenopsis
Rhynchostylis
Sarcochilus
VANDA Arachnis
Ascocentrum
Euanthe
Luisia
Renanthera
Vanda
Vandopsis
TRICHO-
GLOTTIS
Cleisostoma
Gastrochilus
Neofinetia
Robiquetia
Trichoglottis
HYBRIDS Aeridovanda
Aranda
Ascocenda
Ascofinetia
Asconopsis
Christieara
Doritaenopsis
Opsistylis
Perreiraara
Renanstylis
Renantanda
Renanthopsis
Rhynchovanda
Vandaenopsis
Vascostylis
ANGRAECINAE

There are about 300 to 400 species in this subtribe and are found in tropical Africa and Madagascar.
ANGRAECUM Aeranthes
Angraecum
Jumellea
CAMPLYLO-
CENTRUM
Campylocentrum
AERANGIDINAE

There are also about 300 to 400 species in this subtribe and are also found in tropical regions of Africa and Madagascar.
N/A Aerangis
Mystacidium
MAXILLARIEAE

There are about 1,000 species in 70 to 80 genera in this tribe most of which are limited to tropical America. They grow either as terrestrials or epiphytes and there are also a few saprophytes in this tribe. Species in this tribe generally have pseudobulbs, but a few have reedlike stems or thick underground stems. Blooms have four pollinia.
CORALLORHIZINAE

Species in this subtribe are saprophytes.
N/A Corallorhiza
ZYGOPETILINAE

There are about 150 species in this subtribe. Most exhibited hybrids are in this subtribe.
WARREA Otostylis
Warrea
ZYGOPETALUM Pabstia
Promenaea
Zygopetalum
BOLLEA Bollea
Chondrorhyncha
Cochleanthes
Huntleya
Kefersteinia
Pescatoria
Stenia
VARGASIELLA Vargasiella
HYBRIDS

Of all the hybrids in this tribe (43), only Angulocaste is exhibited frequently.
Aitkenara
Bateostylis
Bollopetalum
Chondrobollea
Cochella
Cochlecaste
Cochlenia
Cochlepetalum
Downsara
Durutyara
Hamelwellsara
Huntleanthes
Kanzerara
Keferanthes
Lancebirkara
Otocolax
Otonisia
Palmerara
Rotorara
Zygocaste
Zygolum
Zygonisia
Zygostylis
BIFRENARIINAE

The leaves of species in this subtribe are thin and pleated.
N/A Bifrenaria
Xylobium
LYCASTINAE

The leaves of species in this subtribe are also thin and pleated.
N/A Anguloa
Lycaste
MAXILLARIINAE

Largest of the subtribes containing nearly half of the tribe species. The leaves of this subtribe are conduplicate and leathery.
N/A Maxillaria
Scuticaria
DICHAEINAE N/A Dichaea
TELIPOGONINAE N/A Telipogon
Trichoceros
ORNITHOCEPHALINAE N/A Ornithocephalus
Zygostates
CYMBIDIEAE

There are about 1,800 species in 100 to 130 genera in this tribe. Species are either terrestrial or epiphytic and range throughout global tropical regions. They are unique in that all members have a sympodial growth habit and have two pollinia.
CYRTOPODIINAE

There are over 400 species in this subtribe. Species are usually terrestrial and can be found in Asia, Africa, and tropical America.
BROMHEADIA Bromheadia
EULOPHIA Eulophia
CYRTOPODIUM Cymbidiella
Cyrtopodium
Galeandra
CYMBIDIUM Cymbidium
Grammatophyllum
DIPODIUM Dipodium
HYBRIDS Bifrenidium
Cymphiella
Cyrtellia
Eulocymbidiella
Galeansellia
Graphiella
GENYORCHIDINAE

There are less than 50 species in this subtribe.
N/A Genyorchis
THECOSTELINAE

There are less than 50 species in this subtribe.
N/A Thecostele
ACRIPSIDINAE

There are less than 50 species in this subtribe.
N/A Acriopsis
CATASETINAE

There are about 150 species in this subtribe and are epiphytes found in the Western Hemisphere.
N/A Catasetum
Cycnoches
Mormodes
STANHOPEINAE

There are about 200 species in this subtribe and are epiphytes found in the Western Hemisphere.
N/A Acineta
Coryanthes
Gongora
Stanhopea
PACHYPHYLLINAE

There are less than 50 species in this subtribe.
N/A Pachyphyllum
ONCIDIINAE

Largest of the subtribes with nearly 1,000 species within about 56 to 78 genera. Members are usually epiphytic, but there are some terrestrials within this subtribe.They usually have pseudobulbs that tend to be short and stout. Species are widely distributed throughout tropical America, including Florida and the Caribbean.
ONCIDIUM

Largest alliance in this subtribe and includes the majority of genera in cultivation.
Ada
Brassia
Cochlioda
Miltonia
Miltoniopsis
Odontoglossum
Oncidium (most)
TRICHO-
CENTRUM
Trichocentrum
COMPARETTIA Oncidium
(equitants only)

Comparettia
Ionopsis
Rodriguezia
TRICHOPHILIA Notylia
Psychopsis
Trichopilia
LOCKHARTIA Lockhartia
HYBRIDS

There are over 107 hybrid genera.
Aliceara
Bakerara
Beallara
Brassidium
Burrageara
Colmanara
Degarmoara
Howeara
Maclellanara
Miltassia
Miltonidium
Odontioda
Odontobrassia
Odontocidium
Odontonia
Rodricidium
Trichocidium
Vuylstekeara
Wilsonara
APOSTASIOIDEAE

This subfamily has only two rare genera of about 16 species which have two or three lateral anthers and several primitive features that make them readily distinguishable from all other orchids. Some authorities do not consider the species in this subfamily to be true orchids, rather, they are ancestors to modern orchids.
N/A N/A N/A Apostasia
Neuwiedia
CYPRIPEDIOIDEAE

This subfamily has about 115 species divided among four or five genera. Members of this subfamily can be identified by the unique shieldlike staminode and pouchlike labellum. These species do not have pseudobulbs and are terrestrials or lithophytes.
N/A N/A N/A Cypripedium
Paphiopedilum
Phragmipedium
Genera in RED type have at least 50 AOS awards.

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Reproduction without prior permission prohibited.

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